Homologous chromosomes are chromosomes with the same genes which pair up together. In cells, half the chromosome comes from the mother and half from the father. When chromosomes have a similar genetic structure, then they pair up together during a type of cell division known as meiosis. These chromosomes have the same loci in the same places and contain information about features such as eye and hair colour. The two chromosomes may have the genes which encode hair or eye colour, however, interestingly, one may code for one colour and the other gene for a different colour.